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Sylvain Baillet, PhD

Contact Information
Email address: 
sylvain.baillet [at]
Hospital title: 
Associate Dean, Research, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University
Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery
Director of the magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging core of The Neuro.
Chair, TOSI Open Science Grassroots Initiatives Committee

Sylvain Baillet is also affiliated with the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the School of Computer Science at McGill University.

Sylvain Baillet graduated from Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris-Saclay in Applied Physics (France) and obtained his PhD summa cum laude in Physics from the University of Paris (Paris-XI), in 1998. Baillet has an international career profile, having held positions in France, the USA and Canada. He was a Research Associate at the Signal and Image Processing Institute of the University of Southern California before joining the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France) as a tenured Principal Investigator in 2000. He became the head of the Brain Imaging group at the Cognitive Neuroscience & Brain Imaging CNRS Laboratory in 2005, at La Salpetriere University Hospital in Paris. In 2008, he took a position as Associate Professor of Neurology & Biophysics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and became the founding Scientific Director of the MEG Program at Froedtert Hospital, in Milwaukee (USA). He joined the Montreal Neurological Institute in 2011 and founded the MNI’s MEG core program. Between 2013 and 2017, Baillet was the Director of the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre (BIC), the MNI’s multimodal core platform and research center entirely dedicated to brain imaging science. Under his leadership, the BIC went through outstanding growth, with the recruitment of 6 new faculty members, 9 highly-qualified support staff, and more than $6.2M received in infrastructure grants; in addition, BIC Principal Investigators obtained transformative grants e.g., a $17.8-M project to install the first ultra-high field human MRI scanner in Quebec.

Overall, Baillet has produced 250 publications and shared concrete, practical solutions with the scientific community and transferred to the clinic and the biomedical industry. He also contributed 3 international patents. Dr. Baillet has published his research contributions in leading neuroscience, biomedical engineering, medical physics, computer science, and top-tier journals including PLoS Biology, PNAS, Nature Communications, Nature Neuroscience and Neuron. He has been invited to speak at 160 occasions (73 abroad), and co-organized 50 conferences and educational events worldwide. Baillet trained 63 graduate students and 13 post-docs, who obtained permanent academic or industry positions in Europe, Asia and North America.

Baillet was recognised with Young-Investigator and Mid-Career Achievement Awards, as “a scientist who has shown leadership and made significant contributions to brain imaging.”

Research areas: 
Neuroimaging and Neuroinformatics
Media guide subjects: 
Open Science
Selected publications: 

Donhauser, P. W., Florin, E., & Baillet, S. (2018). Imaging of neural oscillations with embedded inferential and group prevalence statistics. PLoS Computational Biology, 14(2), e1005990. 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005990 

Samiee, S., Levesque, M., Avoli, M., & Baillet, S. (2018). Phase-amplitude coupling and epileptogenesis in an animal model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiology of Disease, 114, 111-119. S0969-9961(18)30040-8 

Albouy, P., Weiss, A., Baillet, S., & Zatorre, R. J. (2017). Selective entrainment of theta oscillations in the dorsal stream causally enhances auditory working memory performance. Neuron, 94(1), 193-206.e5. S0896-6273(17)30198-8

Baillet, S. (2017). Magnetoencephalography for brain electrophysiology and imaging. Nature Neuroscience, 20(3), 327-339. 10.1038/nn.4504

Coffey, E. B. J., Chepesiuk, A. M. P., Herholz, S. C., Baillet, S., & Zatorre, R. J. (2017). Neural correlates of early sound encoding and their relationship to speech-in-noise perception. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 479. 10.3389/fnins.2017.00479

Das, S., Glatard, T., Rogers, C., Saigle, J., Paiva, S., MacIntyre, L., . . . Evans, A. C. (2017). Cyberinfrastructure for open science at the montreal neurological institute. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 10, 53. 10.3389/fninf.2016.00053

Florin, E., Vuvan, D., Peretz, I., & Baillet, S. (2017). Pre-target neural oscillations predict variability in the detection of small pitch changes. PloS One, 12(5), e0177836. 10.1371/journal.pone.0177836 

Graves, W. W., Boukrina, O., Mattheiss, S. R., Alexander, E. J., & Baillet, S. (2017). Reversing the standard neural signature of the word-nonword distinction. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(1), 79-94. 10.1162/jocn_a_01022

Hinault, T., Badier, J. M., Baillet, S., & Lemaire, P. (2017). The sources of sequential modulations of control processes in arithmetic strategies: A magnetoencephalography study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(6), 1033-1043. 10.1162/jocn_a_01102

Morillon, B., & Baillet, S. (2017). Motor origin of temporal predictions in auditory attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(42), E8913-E8921. 10.1073/pnas.1705373114 

Nasiotis, K., Clavagnier, S., Baillet, S., & Pack, C. C. (2017). High-resolution retinotopic maps estimated with magnetoencephalography. Neuroimage, 145(Pt A), 107-117. S1053-8119(16)30571-7 

Samiee, S., & Baillet, S. (2017). Time-resolved phase-amplitude coupling in neural oscillations. Neuroimage, 159, 270-279. S1053-8119(17)30619-5

Coffey, E. B., Herholz, S. C., Chepesiuk, A. M., Baillet, S., & Zatorre, R. J. (2016). Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG. Nature Communications, 7, 11070. 10.1038/ncomms11070

Niso, G., Rogers, C., Moreau, J. T., Chen, L. Y., Madjar, C., Das, S., . . . Baillet, S. (2016). OMEGA: The open MEG archive. Neuroimage, 124(Pt B), 1182-1187. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.028

Pathak, Y., Salami, O., Baillet, S., Li, Z., & Butson, C. R. (2016). Longitudinal changes in depressive circuitry in response to neuromodulation therapy. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 10, 50. 10.3389/fncir.2016.00050 

Soto, J. L., Lachaux, J. P., Baillet, S., & Jerbi, K. (2016). A multivariate method for estimating cross-frequency neuronal interactions and correcting linear mixing in MEG data, using canonical correlations. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 271, 169-181. 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.07.017

Cheng, C. H., Baillet, S., Hsiao, F. J., & Lin, Y. Y. (2015). Effects of aging on the neuromagnetic mismatch detection to speech sounds. Biological Psychology, 104, 48-55. 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.11.003

Cheng, C. H., Baillet, S., & Lin, Y. Y. (2015). Region-specific reduction of auditory sensory gating in older adults. Brain and Cognition, 101, 64-72. 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.10.004

Cheng, C. H., Chan, P. Y., Baillet, S., & Lin, Y. Y. (2015). Age-related reduced somatosensory gating is associated with altered alpha frequency desynchronization. Neural Plasticity, 2015, 302878. 10.1155/2015/302878

Florin, E., & Baillet, S. (2015). The brain's resting-state activity is shaped by synchronized cross-frequency coupling of neural oscillations. Neuroimage, 111, 26-35. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.01.054

Hui-Ling, C., Yong-Sheng, C., Li-Fen, C., & Baillet, S. (2015). Beamformer-based imaging of phase-amplitude coupling using electromagnetic brain activity. Conference Proceedings : ...Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.Annual Conference, 2015, 7558-7561. 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7320141

Balderston, N. L., Schultz, D. H., Baillet, S., & Helmstetter, F. J. (2014). Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness. PloS One, 9(5), e96803. 10.1371/journal.pone.0096803

Florin, E., Bock, E., & Baillet, S. (2014). Targeted reinforcement of neural oscillatory activity with real-time neuroimaging feedback. Neuroimage, 88, 54-60. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.10.028

Khan, S., Lefevre, J., Baillet, S., Michmizos, K. P., Ganesan, S., Kitzbichler, M. G., . . . Kenet, T. (2014). Encoding cortical dynamics in sparse features. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 338. 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00338

Ossadtchi, A., Pronko, P., Baillet, S., Pflieger, M. E., & Stroganova, T. (2014). Mutual information spectrum for selection of event-related spatial components. application to eloquent motor cortex mapping. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 7, 53. 10.3389/fninf.2013.00053

Balderston, N. L., Schultz, D. H., Baillet, S., & Helmstetter, F. J. (2013). How to detect amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography using source imaging. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE, (76). doi(76), 10.3791/50212. 10.3791/50212

Bonnefond, M., Noveck, I., Baillet, S., Cheylus, A., Delpuech, C., Bertrand, O., . . . Van der Henst, J. B. (2013). What MEG can reveal about inference making: The case of if...then sentences. Human Brain Mapping, 34(3), 684-697.

Cheng, C. H., Baillet, S., Hsiao, F. J., & Lin, Y. Y. (2013). Effects of aging on neuromagnetic mismatch responses to pitch changes. Neuroscience Letters, 544, 20-24. 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.063

Gross, J., Baillet, S., Barnes, G. R., Henson, R. N., Hillebrand, A., Jensen, O., . . . Schoffelen, J. M. (2013). Good practice for conducting and reporting MEG research. Neuroimage, 65, 349-363. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.001

Evans, A. C., Janke, A. L., Collins, D. L., & Baillet, S. (2012). Brain templates and atlases. Neuroimage, 62(2), 911-922. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.024

Auzias, G., Colliot, O., Glaunes, J. A., Perrot, M., Mangin, J. F., Trouve, A., & Baillet, S. (2011). Diffeomorphic brain registration under exhaustive sulcal constraints. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 30(6), 1214-1227. 10.1109/TMI.2011.2108665

Baillet, S., Friston, K., & Oostenveld, R. (2011). Academic software applications for electromagnetic brain mapping using MEG and EEG. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2011, 972050. 10.1155/2011/972050

Cottereau, B., Lorenceau, J., Gramfort, A., Clerc, M., Thirion, B., & Baillet, S. (2011). Phase delays within visual cortex shape the response to steady-state visual stimulation. Neuroimage, 54(3), 1919-1929. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.004

Gramfort, A., Papadopoulo, T., Baillet, S., & Clerc, M. (2011). Tracking cortical activity from M/EEG using graph cuts with spatiotemporal constraints. Neuroimage, 54(3), 1930-1941. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.087

Ramirez, R. R., Kopell, B. H., Butson, C. R., Hiner, B. C., & Baillet, S. (2011). Spectral signal space projection algorithm for frequency domain MEG and EEG denoising, whitening, and source imaging. Neuroimage, 56(1), 78-92. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.002 

Sudre, G., Parkkonen, L., Bock, E., Baillet, S., Wang, W., & Weber, D. J. (2011). rtMEG: A real-time software interface for magnetoencephalography. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2011, 327953. 10.1155/2011/327953

Tadel, F., Baillet, S., Mosher, J. C., Pantazis, D., & Leahy, R. M. (2011). Brainstorm: A user-friendly application for MEG/EEG analysis. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2011, 879716. 10.1155/2011/879716

Amor, F., Baillet, S., Navarro, V., Adam, C., Martinerie, J., & Quyen Mle, V. (2009). Cortical local and long-range synchronization interplay in human absence seizure initiation. Neuroimage, 45(3), 950-962. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.011

Auzias, G., Glaunes, J., Colliot, O., Perrot, M., Mangin, J. F., Trouve, A., & Baillet, S. (2009). DISCO: A coherent diffeomorphic framework for brain registration under exhaustive sulcal constraints. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention : MICCAI ...International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 12(Pt 1), 730-738.

Bristow, D., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., Mattout, J., Soares, C., Gliga, T., Baillet, S., & Mangin, J. F. (2009). Hearing faces: How the infant brain matches the face it sees with the speech it hears. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(5), 905-921. 10.1162/jocn.2009.21076

Dalal, S. S., Baillet, S., Adam, C., Ducorps, A., Schwartz, D., Jerbi, K., . . . Lachaux, J. P. (2009). Simultaneous MEG and intracranial EEG recordings during attentive reading. Neuroimage, 45(4), 1289-1304. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.017 

Lefevre, J., & Baillet, S. (2009). Optical flow approaches to the identification of brain dynamics. Human Brain Mapping, 30(6), 1887-1897. 10.1002/hbm.20781

Lefevre, J., Leroy, F., Khan, S., Dubois, J., Huppi, P. S., Baillet, S., & Mangin, J. F. (2009). Identification of growth seeds in the neonate brain through surfacic helmholtz decomposition. Information Processing in Medical Imaging : Proceedings of the ...Conference, 21, 252-263.

Ramirez, R. R., Kopell, B. H., Butson, C. R., Gaggl, W., Friedland, D. R., & Baillet, S. (2009). Neuromagnetic source imaging of abnormal spontaneous activity in tinnitus patient modulated by electrical cortical stimulation. Conference Proceedings : ...Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.Annual Conference, 2009, 1940-1944. 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5333457

Rosso, C., Hevia-Montiel, N., Deltour, S., Bardinet, E., Dormont, D., Crozier, S., . . . Samson, Y. (2009). Prediction of infarct growth based on apparent diffusion coefficients: Penumbral assessment without intravenous contrast material. Radiology, 250(1), 184-192. 10.1148/radiol.2493080107 

Rudrauf, D., Lachaux, J. P., Damasio, A., Baillet, S., Hugueville, L., Martinerie, J., . . . Renault, B. (2009). Enter feelings: Somatosensory responses following early stages of visual induction of emotion. International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 72(1), 13-23. 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.03.015 

Salmelin, R., & Baillet, S. (2009). Electromagnetic brain imaging. Human Brain Mapping, 30(6), 1753-1757. 10.1002/hbm.20795 

Lefevre, J., & Baillet, S. (2008). Optical flow and advection on 2-riemannian manifolds: A common framework. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 30(6), 1081-1092. 10.1109/TPAMI.2008.51

Montiel, N. H., Rosso, C., Chupin, N., Deltour, S., Bardinet, E., Dormont, D., . . . Baillet, S. (2008). Automatic prediction of infarct growth in acute ischemic stroke from MR apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Academic Radiology, 15(1), 77-83. S1076-6332(07)00397-2

Senot, P., Baillet, S., Renault, B., & Berthoz, A. (2008). Cortical dynamics of anticipatory mechanisms in interception: A neuromagnetic study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(10), 1827-1838. 10.1162/jocn.2008.20129

Attal, Y., Bhattacharjee, M., Yelnik, J., Cottereau, B., Lefevre, J., Okada, Y., . . . Baillet, S. (2007). Modeling and detecting deep brain activity with MEG & EEG. Conference Proceedings : ...Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.Annual Conference, 2007, 4937-4940. 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4353448

Besserve, M., Jerbi, K., Laurent, F., Baillet, S., Martinerie, J., & Garnero, L. (2007). Classification methods for ongoing EEG and MEG signals. Biological Research, 40(4), 415-437. /S0716-97602007000500005

Chupin, M., Mukuna-Bantumbakulu, A. R., Hasboun, D., Bardinet, E., Baillet, S., Kinkingnehun, S., . . . Garnero, L. (2007). Anatomically constrained region deformation for the automated segmentation of the hippocampus and the amygdala: Method and validation on controls and patients with alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage, 34(3), 996-1019. S1053-8119(06)01076-7

Cottereau, B., Jerbi, K., & Baillet, S. (2007). Multiresolution imaging of MEG cortical sources using an explicit piecewise model. Neuroimage, 38(3), 439-451. S1053-8119(07)00659-3

Del Cul, A., Baillet, S., & Dehaene, S. (2007). Brain dynamics underlying the nonlinear threshold for access to consciousness. PLoS Biology, 5(10), e260. 07-PLBI-RA-0389

Gramfort, A., Cottereau, B., Clerc, M., Thirion, B., & Baillet, S. (2007). Challenging the estimation of cortical activity from MEG with simulated fMRI-constrained retinotopic maps. Conference Proceedings : ...Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.Annual Conference, 2007, 4945-4948. 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4353450 

Hevia-Montiel, N., Jimenez-Alaniz, J. R., Medina-Banuelos, V., Yanez-Suarez, O., Rosso, C., Samson, Y., & Baillet, S. (2007). Robust nonparametric segmentation of infarct lesion from diffusion-weighted MR images. Conference Proceedings : ...Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.Annual Conference, 2007, 2102-2105. 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352736

Jerbi, K., Lachaux, J. P., N'Diaye, K., Pantazis, D., Leahy, R. M., Garnero, L., & Baillet, S. (2007). Coherent neural representation of hand speed in humans revealed by MEG imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(18), 7676-7681. 0609632104 

Lefevre, J., Obozinski, G., & Baillet, S. (2007). Imaging brain activation streams from optical flow computation on 2-riemannian manifolds. Information Processing in Medical Imaging : Proceedings of the ...Conference, 20, 470-481.

Pantazis, D., Nichols, T. E., Baillet, S., & Leahy, R. M. (2005). A comparison of random field theory and permutation methods for the statistical analysis of MEG data. Neuroimage, 25(2), 383-394. S1053-8119(04)00567-1

Sergent, C., Baillet, S., & Dehaene, S. (2005). Timing of the brain events underlying access to consciousness during the attentional blink. Nature Neuroscience, 8(10), 1391-1400. nn1549

Pantazis, D., Nichols, T. E., Baillet, S., & Leahy, R. M. (2003). Spatiotemporal localization of significant activation in MEG using permutation tests. Information Processing in Medical Imaging : Proceedings of the ...Conference, 18, 512-523.

Current research: 

Overall scientific output – Baillet’s track record is in leading multidisciplinary projects in systems and clinical neuroscience. In particular, he contributed a wide spectrum of advances in brain imaging methods, with specific expertise in multidimensional biological time-series analyses and image processing, biophysical electromagnetics, computational neuroanatomy, and statistical methods. Baillet has been playing a pivotal role in the development of magnetoencephalography (MEG) as a time-resolved brain imaging modality for systems and clinical neuroscience research. He has contributed authoritative reviews of the field, including a recent special focus for Nature Neuroscience, and highly-cited good-practice guidelines.

Promotion and Practice of Open Science – Baillet contributes to major open-science resources, which he considers as vectors of research productivity and reproducibility and shares his tools and methods via open-source software. . In 2014/15 he led a Quebec Bioimaging Network strategic initiative to create the Open MEG Archives (OMEGA): the first open-access repository of MEG data (>250 data entries and 510 international users). His team hosts the software integration of Brainstorm, an international NIH project, which has grown a community of >16,500 registered users. Since 2011, 1,200 students and faculty members have attended our 32 training workshops worldwide, and 650 journal articles cite Brainstorm as the primary tool for data analysis.

Management of Large Research Operations – Baillet founded and led major research and clinical imaging platforms: the MEG program he created in the USA in 2008 was recognized by US health-insurance partners, and is now part of the routine pre-surgical workup of dozens of epilepsy and brain-tumor patients annually. The MEG core he founded at McGill in 2012 has become the second busiest scanner on campus, after 3T MRI. He has led the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, the largest of its kind in Canada in 2013-17. In that period, he was also the inaugural leader of the Neuroimaging & Neuroinformatics research group at The Neuro.

Industrial Transfers – Baillet has experience with the management of patented intellectual property and successful industrial transfers. For example, his patented MRI work for acute stroke evaluation was transferred to the biomedical industry, used in national clinical trials, obtained CE and FDA certifications, and is now marketed worldwide.

The Montreal Neurological Institute & Hospital is a McGill University research and teaching institute; delivering the highest quality of care to patients, as part of the Neuroscience Mission of the McGill University Health Centre. The Neuro is proud to be a Killam Institution, supported by the Killam Trusts.